rProcess Designs

The Basics of Solar Photovoltaic Technology: How Solar Panels Work


Solar photovoltaic (PV) technology has gained widespread attention and adoption in recent years, thanks to  its ability to harness the power of the sun and convert it into electricity. Solar panels, the cornerstone of this technology,  have become increasingly common on rooftops, in large-scale solar farms, and even in portable chargers. But how  do these panels work, and what makes them such a promising source of clean and renewable energy? In this blog,  we’ll delve into the fundamental principles of solar photovoltaic technology and explore how solar panels generate  electricity.

Understanding Solar Panels

At its core, a solar panel is a device that converts sunlight into electricity through a process called the photovoltaic  effect. Each solar panel comprises multiple solar cells, also known as photovoltaic cells, which are interconnected to  create a module. These cells are typically made of semiconductor materials, most commonly crystalline silicon. Let’s  break down the process step by step. 

  • Absorption of Sunlight: The primary function of a solar panel is to capture sunlight. When sunlight strikes the  surface of the solar panel, it contains tiny packets of energy called photons. The semiconductor material in the solar  cells is specially designed to absorb these photons. 
  • Generation of Electron-Hole Pairs: As photons are absorbed, they transfer their energy to electrons in the  semiconductor material. This energy causes electrons to become excited and break free from their normal positions  in the atoms of the material. This creates electron-hole pairs, where electrons are free to move within the material. 
  • Flow of Electrons: Once these electron-hole pairs are created, an electric field within the solar cell guides the  electrons towards an electrical conductor within the cell. This movement of electrons generates an electric current,  which can be harnessed as electricity. 

• Collection and Conversion: The electrical current generated by the movement of electrons is collected and  transferred through metal contacts on the surface of the solar cell. The current is then directed out of the solar panel  through wiring, where it can be used to power electrical devices or stored in batteries for later use.

Factors Affecting Solar Panel Efficiency

Several factors influence the efficiency of solar panels in converting sunlight into electricity: • Type of Semiconductor Material: Different materials have varying abilities to absorb and convert sunlight into  electricity. Crystalline silicon is the most common and efficient material used in solar panels. • Cell Design: The design and structure of solar cells play a crucial role in their efficiency. Innovations in cell design,  such as multi-junction cells and thin-film technologies, have improved efficiency over time. • Sunlight Intensity: The amount of sunlight a panel receives affects its electricity production. Panels in regions  with high solar insolation (sunlight exposure) tend to be more efficient. 

  • Temperature: Solar panel efficiency decreases as temperatures rise. Cooling systems or designs that reduce heat  build-up can help maintain higher efficiency. 
  • Dirt and Shade: Obstructions like dirt, dust, or shading on a solar panel’s surface can reduce its efficiency by  blocking sunlight. 


Solar panels are a remarkable application of science and engineering, allowing us to harness the sun’s energy  and convert it into electricity for various purposes. Understanding the basics of how solar panels work is essential for  anyone interested in solar energy and its potential to contribute to a more sustainable and environmentally friendly  future. As technology continues to advance, we can expect even more efficient and cost-effective solar panels, making  clean energy increasingly accessible to people around the world. Solar photovoltaic technology is not just a promising  solution; it’s already a significant part of the global energy landscape.